Insects and Aquaculture

What will the world eat in 2050?

Written and photographed
by Douglas Gayeton

AT 4 AM EACH MORNING, the Commercial Fishing Village on Honolulu’s Pier 38 presents a chaotic scene. Banks of halogens spotlight a dozen battered fishing trollers tied to either side of a short pier. Just in from weeks spent on open-water in the South Pacific, their weary ship hands now hoist tons of fish out of icy holds and onto trolleys they push the trolleys away from the dock and into a series of warehouses in preparation for the Honolulu Fish Auction—the largest, most active fish market between Tokyo and Maine. 

When you think of fish auctions, images of picturesque fishmongers tossing cod at Seattle’s Pike Place Market usually come to mind, or the bustle of Tsukiji in Tokyo; blocks long, the market featured a startling array of fish, most of which could be eaten at hundreds of tiny restaurants lining the market. Sadly, the market is now closed, replaced by a modern facility in nearby Toyosu.

Pier 38 is a decidedly more low key affair. Six days a week, before dawn, men slowly stream into these warehouses, bundled in sweaters and down vests—despite the tropical clime—carrying their thermoses of coffee, nodding silent, distracted hellos to fellow buyers, their attention reserved instead for trolleys carrying ono, big-eye tuna, long-tail red snapper, and mahi mahi. If you eat tuna in the US it likely passes through this warehouse, an amazing feat for such a small, unassuming market.

Rows of tuna packed in ice crowd the main room’s concrete floor. Notches etched out of each tuna’s tail fin, along with core samples taken from the belly, are placed atop each fish. Buyers jostle each other to closely study the flesh’s color and how it reflects light, then hold the samples up to their noses. From these limited sensory cues, an experienced buyer can deduce a fish’s health, vitality, and state of preservation. Each tuna also has a tag stapled to its tail. Its barcode contains information about the catch location, total fish weight, and how much time has passed since the fish left the water. 

Since international fisheries often operate without sufficient government oversight, some players in the seafood industry, like Norpac, have implemented their own traceability programs. The fishermen who sell to Norpac tag each fish as it comes out of the water. This catch information travels with the fish when it is offloaded from a fishing vessel, cut into filets, logged, weighed, vacuum packed, then shipped to a restaurant or market. The same fish. The same verified information. Traceability means transparency, independent third-party verification, and a thorough accounting of the fish’s journey.

The ability to control traceability and transparency will be increasingly critical as the global population rises. More people means more demand, and while the growth rate of wild fish stocks—the total number of fish in our oceans—has essentially flatlined in the last few decades, global fish consumption has nearly doubled. By 2050, there simply will not be enough fish in our oceans to feed the planet. While waning fish stocks coupled with increasing demand for fish may offer a dire prognosis, there remains some good news: for the first time in history, most of the fish we eat aren’t caught in the wild; they’re raised on fish farms.

Yet, even this news isn’t entirely hopeful. The base ingredient in aquaculture feed is  wild fish harvested from the sea. Nearly 25% of the world’s commercially caught fish are used as fishmeal, which has made fish like Peru’s anchoveta – the most common fish used in feed – some of the most overfished species in the world. Like herring, anchoveta was traditionally reserved for human consumption, but the expansion of aquaculture has removed them from the diets of most South American coastal communities. Overfishing may even lead to the collapse of an entire undersea food web, of which anchoveta play a vital role.

Life on the Isle of Salmon

MANY ENVIRONMENTALISTS, and even other fishermen, are critical of fish farms, especially those in the Pacific Northwest where open pens—circular nets fixed to the ocean floor—allow Atlantic salmon to be raised in the Pacific Ocean. These pens impact their surrounding waters with high concentrations of fish waste and excess nutrients, which threaten the livelihoods of wild salmon. Further, because farmed salmon are particularly susceptible to disease, they’re provided a steady diet of antibiotics and parasiticides to stay healthy. These too have an impact on wild salmon.

To more closely examine two challenges facing global fisheries—alternate sources for fish feed and the rise of aquaculture—we traveled to Alert Bay, where the ‘Namgis First Nation has been sorely challenged by the arrival of open pen fish farms in a small inlet off the northeastern tip of British Columbia’s Vancouver Island.

A seaplane from Vancouver takes us two hours north to a single-strip airport in Port Hardy. From there, we board a small ferry that crosses the Broughton Strait and the Pearse Passage to reach Cormorant Island. The area is remote. No main street. No stoplights. No pedestrians. No tourist shops. No hotels. There are also no rental cars; visitors to Alert Bay either know somebody with a car or walk. Fortunately, we have a guide. 

The island’s lone road skirts the rocky shoreline, then veers up into the island’s interior, past the Big House, which boasts the largest totem pole in the world—and where we attend a potlatch the following day. The road takes us to the U’mista Cultural Centre, where we stop to observe centuries-old wood carvings of wild land animals and, of course, the ubiquitous salmon. A primary food source and the main economic driver of this fishing community for hundreds of years, the fish symbolizes resilience on this small, rugged island.

Until the 1980’s, Cormorant Island was a fishing boomtown. Docks were lined with hundreds of boats registered to local fishermen, and the shorefront streets featured shops and even taxis. The rise of larger salmon fisheries farther north in Alaska—which have easy access to international airports and canning facilities—eventually led to Cormorant Island’s decline, but lately the salmon industry has returned to the area.

Fish farms that raise Atlantic salmon in open net pens are everywhere here, and they pose a great threat to wild salmon and the remaining ‘Namgis fishermen who still work these straits. Aquaculture pollutes local waters and contaminates wild fish stocks with  both disease and pests. Many First Nation tribes have attempted to resist the fish farming industry by seeking government support and even taking their protests directly to farm operators. Despite their protests, aquaculture’s rapid advance continues.

Raising fish in a box

INSTEAD OF ACCEPTING THEIR LOT like most have in this region, the ‘Namgis First Nation devised a radical plan: they too would build a fish farm for salmon, but rather than placing it in their sacred waters, they’d go on land, into the middle of a forest, and try raising fish in a box.

In the language of the ‘Namgis people, kutala means salmon while terra means land. Merge the two words and you get kuterra, or salmon from the land. It’s a portmanteau that would’ve been inconceivable even ten years ago, but now we’re on a ferry before dawn bound for Port MacNeill, joined by ‘Namgis fishermen who work harvest days at the plant twice a week. Their job is to bleed and ice fish, as they’ve done for most of their lives, except now they work indoors, under florescent lights. “This isn’t fishing,” one of them observes as we stare out at the water. When I ask what it is then, he doesn’t answer at first, then replies, “It’s something else.”

Upon landing, a Kuterra drive greets us with a thermos of coffee, which we drink in silence. It’s a short drive. As dawn breaks, we turn onto a long dirt road that runs parallel to the Nimpkish, the traditional ‘Namgis salmon fishing ground. The dense pine forest clears briefly and we enter a gravel lot. We’re asked to stand in chemical baths to decontaminate our shoes, then continue our trek on foot until reaching Kuterra, the first land-based salmon farm in North America, which sounds fairly impressive, even if it’s scarcely more than a plain beige, aluminum-sided warehouse set in a forest clearing.

What is a
recirculating aquaculture

KUTERRA RAISES ATLANTIC SALMON in a dark, windowless warehouse that contains five above-ground grow out tanks not unlike childhood wading pools, except these are twelve feet tall and a hundred feet wide. 

The water in these tanks flows through a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Biofilters in the RAS continually remove solids, waste particles, CO2 and ammonia, then inject the newly purified water with oxygen before returning it to the tanks. By raising fish in a closed aquatic system, water use is dramatically reduced, as well as the space required to intensively produce fish. Advances in RAS technology over the last 50 years now make it possible to grow Atlantic salmon to full market size in closed containment systems that allow enclosure-grown fish to compete with more traditional open net pen farms.

As they age, the salmon move from tank to tank, starting with smolts—youngsters—in quarantine tanks. They are evaluated for four months to ensure they remain healthy, then move through a series of grow out tanks, eventually spending their final days in the harvesting tank. Here, unrecycled water flushes their systems of any impurities until harvest day, when a large pipe at the bottom of the tank sucks them into a series of vacuum tubes that lead to a processing room.

The closed system resolves many issues produced by open pen farming. It eliminates the pollution of surrounding waters, as well as the transference of disease to other fish. Kuterra is now ten years into their experiment. If it weren’t for subsidies, federal grants and even support from foundations, the operation would’ve already closed, so the farm is a work in progress.  Nevertheless, Kuterra offers a vision for growing protein without impacting wild fish or natural systems.

What do fish eat
(when they don’t eat other fish)?

AS THE FISHING INDUSTRY SHIFTS from wild stocks to aquaculture, the use of smaller species like anchoveta for fish meal has become increasingly unsustainable. 

Some fish farms in British Columbia have already begun exploring new feed ingredients; algae and plant-based solutions have emerged as two popular alternatives. Another feed comes from an unlikely source. Most wild fish eat marine insects as a part of their natural diet, and now several insect protein sources—including crickets, mealworms and black soldier fly larvae—have shown promise as aquaculture feedstock.

Insects can produce protein at a much lower environmental cost than fishmeal or soy, two of the most common ingredients used in fishmeal. Black soldier flies (BSF), or Hermetia illucens, are detritivores commonly found in compost heaps or manure. When raised industrially on a diet that includes discarded brewery grains and food waste, their larvae contain 40% protein and over 40% fat. Much like the anchoveta, they are rich in Omega 3s and 6s, which makes them, when dried, an ideal alternative food source for farmed salmon.

While BSF are highly adaptable to droughts, food shortages and oxygen deficient environments, they do require warm environments to thrive, which can often lead to high energy costs if raised in milder temperate zones. Still, a single BSF can lay 800 eggs during its short five to seven day lifespan, and one fly hatchery cage can contain over six million flies. That’s a lot of fishmeal.

The salmon
that never went to sea

AFTER ONLY TWELVE MONTHS, KUTERRA SALMON are finally ready for harvest. Because they’re raised without hormones, antibiotics, or pesticides, they qualify for the prestigious GREEN RANKING, a certification reserved for seafood caught or farmed in methods that cause little harm to habitats or other wildlife. Farming indoors is just one step in preserving wild fish stocks while working to meet the planet’s food demands for future generations. Moreover, Kuterra breeds hope for preserving ‘Namgis traditions borne out of respect for their people, their culture, their land, their water and their salmon.

As Cheryl Dahle, founder of Future of Fish observes, “Challenges to global fish stocks remain. Collective effects of bad human behavior (overfishing, destruction of marine habitat, and climate change) are driving the world’s fisheries past their biological limits. The vast majority of our top predator fish are depleted, and two-thirds of fish populations are fished at their limit or over fished; some species, including bluefin tuna, are threatened with extinction.

“The rampant misuse and abuse of the underwater world continues in part because the results of our misadventures remain hidden: it’s easier to stumble upon a strip-mined mountain top or a clear-cut rainforest than a trawled (bulldozed) deep sea floor. 

“Unfortunately, the seafood counter at your grocery store fails to reflect this scarcity. Labels for seafood are frequently inaccurate and often lack key information about harvest methods or gear types. Most people aren’t even aware a problem exists. But consumers can make these issues more visible by asking tough questions of their waiters and fishmongers. They can support fishers and farmers who disclose their responsible practices, and start questioning the origin of fish ingredients in their cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pet food. These small steps might seem inconvenient. But the stakes are high. Given that our oceans supply half the air we breathe, saving the fish is about self-preservation, not conservation.”

Watch the Short Film

Written and directed by Douglas Gayeton
Animated and edited by Pier Giorgio Provenzano

About Douglas Gayeton
and The Lexicon

Douglas Gayeton, Chief Lexicographer and Co-founder of The Lexicon, is an award-winning information architect, filmmaker, photographer, and writer who has created work at the boundaries of traditional and converging media since the early 90’s. He directed the KNOW YOUR FOOD series for PBS and GROWING ORGANIC for USDA, and has authored two books, SLOW: Life in a Tuscan Town, and LOCAL: The New Face of Food & Farming in America.

Growing Fish in a Box was produced by The Lexicon. Led by co-founders Douglas Gayeton and Laura Howard-Gayeton, this US based NGO uses evidence-based storytelling, strategy and mobilization to help movements tackle our food system’s greatest challenges. By illuminating the meaning behind powerful ideas, they spur people to pay closer attention to how they eat, what they buy, and where their responsibility begins for creating a healthier, safer food system.

Join a bold, new online community for anyone who cares about building more resilient, inclusive food systems.

Contact us

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Eligibility, Submission Terms and Conditions


A Greener Blue Global Storytelling Initiative is sponsored by The Lexicon, a US based 501(c)(3) public charity.


Storytellers will join A Greener Blue Storytelling Collective to create stories for the International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture with the FAO and its partner organizations. Members of the Collective will take part in a private online “Total Storytelling Lab” led by The Lexicon’s Douglas Gayeton. Upon completion of this online certificate program, members of the Collective will join seafood experts from around the globe in creating A Greener Blue Storytelling initiative.


Who can enter and how selections are made.

A Greener Blue is a global call to action that is open to individuals and teams from all over the world. Below is a non-exhaustive list of subjects the initiative targets.

  • Creatives and storytellers with a passion for food and the willingness to support small-scale fisherpeople and experts worldwide. This category includes, but is not exhausted in photographers, videomakers, illustrators, podcasters, and writers.
  • Food Activists working to change open sea fishing and aquaculture; 
  • Members of fishing and indigenous communities that support their communities, share their stories and protect their way of life;
  • Local and International NGOs work every day with actors across the whole value chain to create more sustainable seafood models.

To apply, prospective participants will need to fill out the form on the website, by filling out each part of it. Applications left incomplete or containing information that is not complete enough will receive a low score and have less chance of being admitted to the storytelling lab.

Nonprofit organizations, communities of fishers and fish farmers and companies that are seeking a closer partnership or special support can also apply by contacting and interacting with the members of our team.

Special attention will be given to the section of the form regarding the stories that the applicants want to tell and the reasons for participating. All proposals for stories regarding small-scale or artisanal fishers or aquaculturists, communities of artisanal fishers or aquaculturists, and workers in different steps of the seafood value chain will be considered.

Stories should show the important role that these figures play in building a more sustainable seafood system. To help with this narrative, the initiative has identified 10 principles that define a more sustainable seafood system. These can be viewed on the initiative’s website and they state:
Seafood is sustainable when:

  • it helps address climate change
  • it supports global ecosystems
  • it optimizes impact on resources and nutrient cycles.
  • it promotes a safe growing environment for safe food sources.
  • it advances animal welfare.
  • it enhances flavor and nutrition.
  • it builds resilience and self-sufficiency in local communities.
  • it prioritizes inclusion, equality, and fair treatment of workers.
  • it preserves legality and the quality and the story of the product throughout the value chain.
  • it creates opportunities along the whole value chain.

Proposed stories should show one or more of these principles in practice.

Applications are open from the 28th of June to the 15th of August 2022. There will be 50 selected applicants who will be granted access to The Lexicon’s Total Storytelling Lab. These 50 applicants will be asked to accept and sign a learning agreement and acceptance of participation document with which they agree to respect The Lexicon’s code of conduct.

The first part of the lab will take place online between August the 22nd and August the 26th and focus on training participants on the foundation of storytelling, supporting them to create a production plan, and aligning all of them around a shared vision.

Based on their motivation, quality of the story, geography, and participation in the online Lab, a selected group of participants will be gifted a GoPro camera offered to the program by GoPro For A Change. Participants who are selected to receive the GoPro camera will need to sign an acceptance and usage agreement.

The second part of the Storytelling Lab will consist of a production period in which each participant will be supported in the production of their own story. This period goes from August 26th to October 13th. Each participant will have the opportunity to access special mentorship from an international network of storytellers and seafood experts who will help them build their story. The Lexicon also provides editors, animators, and graphic designers to support participants with more technical skills.

The final deadline to submit the stories is the 14th of October. Participants will be able to both submit complete edited stories, or footage accompanied by a storyboard to be assembled by The Lexicon’s team.

All applicants who will exhibit conduct and behavior that is contrary to The Lexicon’s code of conduct will be automatically disqualified. This includes applicants proposing stories that openly discriminate against a social or ethnic group, advocate for a political group, incite violence against any group, or incite to commit crimes of any kind.

All submissions must be the entrant’s original work. Submissions must not infringe upon the trademark, copyright, moral rights, intellectual rights, or rights of privacy of any entity or person.

Participants will retain the copyrights to their work while also granting access to The Lexicon and the other partners of the initiative to share their contributions as part of A Greener Blue Global Storytelling Initiative.

If a potential selected applicant cannot be reached by the team of the Initiative within three (3) working days, using the contact information provided at the time of entry, or if the communication is returned as undeliverable, that potential participant shall forfeit.


Selected applicants will be granted access to an advanced Storytelling Lab taught and facilitated by Douglas Gayeton, award-winning storyteller and information architect, co-founder of The Lexicon. In this course, participants will learn new techniques that will improve their storytelling skills and be able to better communicate their work with a global audience. This skill includes (but is not limited to) how to build a production plan for a documentary, how to find and interact with subjects, and how to shoot a short documentary.

Twenty of the participants will receive a GoPro Hero 11 Digital Video and Audio Cameras by September 15, 2022. Additional participants may receive GoPro Digital Video and Audio Cameras to be announced at a later date. The recipients will be selected by advisors to the program and will be based on selection criteria (see below) on proposals by Storytelling Lab participants. The selections will keep in accordance with Lab criteria concerning geography, active participation in the Storytelling Lab and commitment to the creation of a story for the Initiative, a GoPro Camera to use to complete the storytelling lab and document their story. These recipients will be asked to sign an acceptance letter with terms of use and condition to receive the camera. 

The Lexicon provides video editors, graphic designers, and animators to support the participants to complete their stories.

The submitted stories will be showcased during international and local events, starting from the closing event of the International Year of Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022 in Rome, in January 2023. The authors of the stories will be credited and may be invited to join.

All selection criteria

Storytelling lab participation:

Applicants that will be granted access to the storytelling Lab will be evaluated based on the entries they provided in the online form, and in particular:

  • The completeness of their form
  • The relevance of their story (coherence with the main goal of the initiative and 10 principles)
  • Written motivation explained
  • Geography (the initiative aims at showcasing stories from all over the world so the mix of locations will be a factor that the selection committee will take into account)

Applications will be evaluated by a team of 4 judges from The Lexicon, GSSI and the team of IYAFA (Selection committee).

When selecting applications, the call promoters may request additional documentation or interviews both for the purpose of verifying compliance with eligibility requirements and to facilitate proposal evaluation.

Camera recipients:

Participants to the Storytelling Lab who will be given a GoPro camera will be selected based on:

  • Quality of the story (coherence with the initiative and the 10 principles)
  • Motivation demonstrated during the interaction in the online class
  • Participation in the online class (participants that will attend less than 4 classes will be automatically excluded)

The evaluation will be carried out by a team of 4 judges from The Lexicon, GSSI and the team of IYAFA (Selection committee).

Incidental expenses and all other costs and expenses which are not specifically listed in these Official Rules but which may be associated with the acceptance, receipt and use of the Storytelling Lab and the camera are solely the responsibility of the respective participants and are not covered by The Lexicon or any of the A Greener Blue partners.

All participants who receive a Camera are required to sign an agreement allowing GoPro for a Cause, The Lexicon and GSSI to utilize the films for A Greener Blue and their promotional purposes. All participants will be required to an agreement to upload their footage into the shared drive of The Lexicon and make the stories, films and images available for The Lexicon and the promoting partners of A Greener Blue.

Additional Limitations

Selection and distribution of the camera is non-transferable. No substitution or cash equivalent of the cameras is granted. The Lexicon and its respective partners and representatives are not responsible for any typographical or other errors in the offer or administration of the Initiative, including, but not limited to, errors in any printing or posting or the Official Rules, the selection and announcement of any selected participant, or the distribution of any equipment. Any attempt to damage the content or operation of this Initiative is unlawful and subject to possible legal action by The Lexicon. The Lexicon reserves the right to terminate, suspend or amend the Initiative, without notice, and for any reason, including, without limitation, if The Lexicon determines that the Lab cannot be conducted as planned or should a virus, bug, tampering or unauthorized intervention, technical failure or other cause beyond The Lexicon’s control corrupt the administration, security, fairness, integrity or proper play of the Contest. In the event any tampering or unauthorized intervention may have occurred, The Lexicon reserves the right to void suspect entries at issue.